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FEMALE HONOUR KILLING
Samprity Halder, law Student at Department of Law, University of Calcutta View: 608

ABSTRACT

The Honour killing cases creates a deep impact on the well being of the society. It procrastinates the culture of patriarchal society by which women have been dominated by domestic abuse. The concept of  Equalitarianism is totally frustrated in view of gender based violence. The inductive growth of honour crimes have substantially risen due to inferior quality of mindset. Indian society witnessed nefarious and brutal honour killing cases which violated several articles of the Indian Constitution as well as several sections of Indian Penal Code; however, the Government implemented several legislation on offences which endorsed the killing. The harsh dominance of Khap Panchayats which ingrains the seed of violence and harassment into the lives of women and are actively engaged in illegal activities of policy making in which their decisions only bring terror in human lives. A complete ban would be institutionalized by the Government would be the best possible solution. The socio-cultural impact should be enhanced with proper formal education at grass-root levels for the development of downtrodden caste, class and minority groups. The UN is in continuous motion  to eliminate honour based crime worldwide with several resolutions, laws and declarations directing nations to follow up the approach; also sanctioning monetary support to more effectively reach its aim. The Special Rapporteur taskforce executes strategic plans with proper ratification which should be used as recovery tool to diminish shocking deaths. Females are still misused in this 21st century on grounds of inequality, abuse, harassment, low paid work – which rightly strikes off all the qualities, skills, abilities and qualifications. There is least support from the society for its eradication as the real cause still stands in the hands of the patriarch. Women should glorifically enjoy human rights by pitching the roaring voice against the slightest harm on them.

Keywords – Honour killing , equalitarianism, gender violence, grass- root, human rights.

 

INTRODUCTION

It is the form of homicide of a person both an outsider or by the boundary of relatives to defend what they see because of the dignity and honor of themselves or to their family. Honor killings are linked to religion, caste, class, race, colour and different types of hierarchical stratification which leads to murder, sexual assault and rape. It entails the killings of a woman or girl which brings “dishonor” or “disgrace” to the family honour, as the popularity is diminished in the society. Honor killings have incensed from the tribal community to rural areas and inculcated huge roots in the urban as well as to the metropolitan cities. The women are thus captivated in an cage which being tortured and dominated by the “patriarchal men society”. The principle motive behind the heinous crime is the evil mentality of the men that they are not equipped to reassign the fact of marrying with their own choices based on caste, religion and faith. According to this patriarchal society, the girls are in constant threat and fear that men will commit such atrocious act in their mind of forcefully ingesting alcohol and committing sexual violence. The daughters have neither their opinion regarding marriage nor selection of the groom of their choice. The societal norms, social values, morality, kindness, truthfulness ends the social justification within the ambit of Honor killings which ultimately lead to a destruction to humanity. 

The cultural status of women has been constantly degraded right from the ancient period. Insecurity to the women arises from the financial incapability and are merely puppets in the hands of male-dominated society. The way they are being harassed like the way to be get dressed, forcing to divorce, sexual assaults, pressured to commit suicide and nudity. Atrocious acts worsened the mentality of the stereotypic patriarchal men where the actual cause stands as “illiteracy” and “inadequacy of proper education”. Right from the primary level of schooling they should be inculcated with the effective education mechanism by which they are aware which one is right and which one is wrong. Boys are treated much more preferentially as they will improve the financial stability and will bring honour to the family whereas, girls are kept uneducated at home and will bring dishonor to the family. Efforts should be made by the government to raise awareness and organize campaigns about reduction of Honour killings in the society which will effectively mandate positive results in the near future.

 

OVERVIEW OF HONOUR KILLING IN INDIA

In the predominantly early stage of Indian culture it is well noted that women are advised to talk behind the “veil” while talking to men. Thus, the woman strives to live in the household without any social interaction and instigates hard working life. Even if the girls  have the will to enrich in the flow of education they are intravenously rejected by the patriarchal society and men realises that if girls are sent to schools, colleges they will be superficially educated and will be superior than men, as a result men will not be able to enhance the supremacy over the women.

Criminal intimacy over the girls and women has affected the socio-cultural norms in the society which prevails in invoking dignity and respect to the females. The role and status of women has changed, hardship and discrimination remains in the norm for majority in rural communities; the nefarious sexual acts on “eve teasing”, “euphemism”, “voyeurism” temptresses men to undergo states of sexual titillation[1]. Domestic violence as dowry deaths, rape, infanticide, etc includes sexual, verbal, emotional torturing of women as a failure to fulfill the needs of husband in his in-laws house and harsh rigidity by the family members. Serious grievous offences goes unreported by the media on the grounds of negligence and nature of offence. However, several primary reasons for honour killing including inter-caste marriage, inter-religion marriage, and pre-marital relationship have intermittently downgraded the traditional mentality of the society. The prevalence of Khap Panchayats is a real threat to the girls, as it acts as defying the norms of the village and also intervenes in marriage of adults which is illegal in purview of Indian laws. Honour killing violates Article 14(Right to equality before law), 15(1)&(3) (prohibition of discrimination on grounds of race, caste, sex, place of birth), 19(freedom of speech and expression), 21(Right to life and personal liberty) 39(f) (provides State that children and youths are protected against exploitation) of the Indian Constitution[2]. The Indian Government put forward several laws to abolish Honour killings. Society should come forward as a sparkling light which will outshine the positive impacts and destroy evil mindedness. Honourable respect to womens has been given by the Constitution but is misused and ill-treated by the society which needs proper synchronization by the Government; also they should be aware of their individual Fundamental Right which prevails and they should turn up their voices.

There are certain heinous Honour Killing Cases which shocked every nook and corner of India.

 

The  case of Nirupama Pathak in 2010

A journalist was murdered  as she was in a relationship with Pribhanshu Ranjan who was from lower caste. While Nirupama’s family have locked Pribhanshu in a bathroom and tortured him as he was from a lower caste.

The brutal killing of Asha Saini in 2010

Asha Saini, a 19 year young girl was engaged with her boyfriend Yogesh, a driver, while Asha’s parents could not bear up with this relationship. However, they were eloquently tortured, electrocuted and severely beaten until the last drop of breath by the girl’s family.

Murder case of Shankar in 2016

Shankar was Dalit considered to be untouchable was in an relationship with Kausalya, who was an upper caste woman. As a result Kausalya’s father ordered violent attack resulting to murder under section 302 of IPC[3].

The above mentioned cases creates a notion to the Indian Society that such inhuman sense of nature of killing a person who is simply from a “lower caste”.

The states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana are the hotspots of Honour killing crimes. 251 cases of honour killings have been recorded in 2015. The Supreme Court of India recorded 288 cases of honour killings between 2014 and 2016.  State of Punjab recorded 24 cases followed by Gujarat, Haryana, and Uttarakhand in 2019. According to NCRB 77 cases of honour killing in 2016, 28 cases in 2014 have been recorded. Delhi also started recording more cases of offences against women. Maximum cases were reported in U.P. which is 11.2% , followed by Madhya Pradesh 9.2%  and Maharashtra recorded 8.9% in 2016. There are 50 Honour killing cases in Jharkhand that took place between 2017 and 2019[4]. Honour killings cases have less dominance in states of  South India, Maharashtra and parts of Gujarat.

 In India there are no specific laws that deal with ‘Honour killings’. However certain legislation which came into limelight due to sexual offences and prevention of violence.

Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

This Act effectively focuses on the protection of violence against women within the protection rules and legislations. It addresses all forms of violence against women including physical, verbal, emotional and  psychological abuses. The government incorporates this Act not only for protection of women’s rights but also prevention of atrocious violence against women.

The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO), 2012

It addresses to provide protection of children, sexual assault offences, sexual harassment which tends to safeguards interests of reporting cases. A gender neutral  law to protect children below 18 years and also does not differentiate on grounds of gender. Treating the children with utmost care and affection those are victims of the  grievous offence; also assuring confidentiality to the victim’s recognition.

Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013

The Act states that no women shall be subjected to any sexual harassment at workplace, there shall be no explicit torture upon employees, physical conduct of sexual violence for intimating of offensive work, sexual apprehension by verbal or written will lead to severe punishment to charge with. Employee can file an suit for sexual harassment to Internal Complaints Committee to inquire about the harassment to accused employee.

The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986

The Act represents the women by writings, pictures, pamphlets, manner of publication by the  print media to address the prohibition of the women’s body, derogatory images, advertisement hoardings without seeking permission from the women will lead to filing of legal suit. The company shall be held guilty of offence as it is unreasonable to represent without the consent of women. Conviction of imprisonment of about two years with a fine.

Indian Penal Code(IPC) emphasies the vicious nature of crimes against women including rape, murder, cruelty by husband and other relatives, adultery, abduction, sexual harassment, trafficking, assaulting, forced sexual intercourse, forced pregnancy, insult by words or sexual gestures, stalking ,voyeurism, eve teasing at public place and acid attacks. 

 INTERNATIONAL OUTLOOK OF HONOUR   KILLING

The United Nations Convention on the Elimination All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) has been founded by the UN General Assembly. It administers the functioning to establish various committees and governing bodies to enhance the effective protection and well being of women. Adheres to smooth functioning and elimination of all forms of domestic and sexual offences in public arenas as well as in domestic places. The Honour Killing crimes have widely spread in Europe, South America, Africa, South Asia and other continents as well. The stereotypical role played by men to perpetuate the dominance have been intrusively occurred of such prejudice violence. Europeans in the ancient past have the patriarchal mindset of keeping up honour of women’s dignity and counter attack when being attacked.   They consisted of bravery, courage and inclination towards violence. However, as a result violence erupted and the urge to save someone was neglected which inevitably brought the downfall. In the Romanian period, the head of the family has every single right to kill the woman if it has been found out that women have some pre-marital affairs. Rule sustained of killing a woman who is proved to be an unchaste as homicide considers being the prime elocution. Arabians consider the tradition of burying alive newly born daughters from the Islamic past and that would bring dishonor to the family culture. Serious punishments to be inflicted on those having extramarital affairs of both men and women.  Pakistan has muffled the honour killings with the patriarchal form of strictly headed by father at young age whereas the treatment remains the same and even worse when moved to the husband's household. The countries of Ecuador, Brazil , North Africa has been the constant threats and inclusively high femicide rates soared in recent years. Iraq faced sexual aasaults and violence upon children of brutal killings by ISIs which shows that the government is unable to protect the basic safety to the citizens and military power is too meek to control the grievous situation. Latin America witnessed high rate of femicide cases with scourge rise in dowry deaths of murdering thousands women every year; in ancient times, the crimes against women haven’t followed proper measures, lack of inadequate data and backlog inquiry provisions related to it. In contrast, there is a strenuous rise of cases in Iran which has its roots in contexts in the patriarchal aspect of society. 

The United Nations has recognized violence as the most serious violence against women as organizing awareness campaigns, committee sessions to discuss the elimination of violence, educating the social culture and implementation of certain policy and laws. The new network UNiTE to End Violence against Women which acts as an galvanizing action across the UN to call the other countries for peace, strong laws, preventive measures to address violence against girls and however, generate the concrete action[5].

The UN Convention of Declaration on the Elimination of the Violence against Women (EVAW) which strongly focuses with the UN member states to eliminate the gender based discrimination and violence against the low graded social class of women. It takes up the national plan to strategize the government of taking effective measures to address sexual violence in the wider aspect. Strenghthening of international law will more profusely focus on monitoring mechanism to investigate and with regard to criminal offence and prosecution of the accused. The institutional and non-governmental approach to the study to emancipate violence would create a deep sense of trust and the intensity rate of violence will gradually droop down. Criminalisation raises an upward shift of concern from diverting away from legal aid policies and various welfare services by associations. On the contrary, the viciousness of the prosperity which has led to public agendas and impacts families over a large point and such prominent medical strive to gain its dominance over the aspects of social life. UN raising concern for the gender based violence against the black and minority ethnic (BME) community for culturalisation as they have been neglected on basis of skin colour, poor backward classes and inferiority in race culture. Investigation should be made to protect the crime against BME communities including honour killings, forced marriage, domestic violence and imprisonment. The Amnesty International acts as an taskforce to curb the violence and enhance proper removal of taboo with effective measures and proper checkout of campaigns such as #Me Too Movement which essentially throws light on the gender-based violence and sexual harassment.

 World Health Organization (WHO) reports that women have been physically and sexually abused of 16% more which having low-birth weight. WHO reports the intimate partner violence have risen in 2018 with an estimate 95% uncertainty interval (UI). 26-28% of partnered womenhas been subjected to physical and sexual violence whereas 10-16% women’s faced violence in past 12 months. Estimated 38-40% murders of women committed by partner based violence[6].

Amnesty International has been in constant working force to fight with human rights issues of female genital mutilation, illegal abortion, sexual orientation, physical abuse, forced marriage, prostitution and LGBTQ community violence. Amnesty International recorded 35% of women in world in 2013 has experienced violence; 38% of murders being committed by partners and 24% of domestic violence cases[7].

In 2014 The Global Burden of Armed Violence database shows that on an average 60,000 women were violently killed between 2007-2012. The homicide rates have subsequently risen in El Salvador and Honduras which crosses the limits which has tremendously higher crime rates of Ecuador, Nicargua and Tanzania.

In Turkey 42% of the women have suffered sexual violence by their partners and also highest femicide rates in 2019 with 474 murders. In South Africa above 6000 cases of sexual assault was reported in 2017. According to Statistics report by South African Police Service the sexual offences have increased by 1.7% from previous year. In a survey, the sex workers in Bangladesh forecasted that 49% of the women has been raped and faced sexual abuse. A huge plight of refugees fled from Myanmar to Bangladesh out of tragic consequences of serious sexual violence. Countries of Middle East are also the worst sufferers[8].

The UN adopted several laws and legislation to prevent sexual violence against women.

Domestic Violence Legislation and its Implementation for ASEAN countries

The legislation protects the ASEAN countries by demonstrating its procedures to eradicate domestic violence with access to court proceedings, monitoring the implementation, mandating laws and raising public awareness among the public.

UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women

The Declaration defines domestic violence on a serious note to eliminate all forms of violence upon women and finds the best possible solution. It also appoints a Special Rapporteur to investigate with special force and makes laws efficient for the successful implementation at the ground level.

UNFPA Srategic and Framework of Action to address Gender Based Violence

The framework establishes strategically to enforce protection mechanisms, data collection, humanitarian action, focus on the sexual violence matters, analysis to the self-reported implementation, cultural norms to be established. Supports to increase the tendency of accountability and strengthen the mobilization of the community.

UN  Universal Declaration of Human Rights

It is the blueprint for protecting the human rights of every citizen of freedom and equality.  The rights and freedoms should be fully exercised without any obligations or restrictions and promote every citizen is eligible for human rights from an extreme poor to an extremely rich person. The rule of human rights remains the same. 

Addressing violence against women and achieving Millenium Development Goals

It recommends preventing violence with integrating initiatives into millennium development goals such as to promote gender equality and empower women, achieving universal primary education, reduce child mortality rate, improving of maternal health and also highlighting the care efforts to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. Working effectively with MDGs to reduce violence against women and contribute to achieve goals.

The Independent Expert Mechanisms on the Elimination of Discrimination and Violence against Women (EDVAW) platform is build for expert mechanisms :-

       UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women (SRVAW)

       UN Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women and girls (WGDAW)

       UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)

       Committee of Experts of Follow-up Mechanism to Belem do Para Convention (MESECVI)

       Group of Experts on Action against Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (GRIEVO)

       Inter- American Commission on Human Rights Rapporteur on Rights of Women (IA RWHR)

WHY SOCIO – CULTURAL ASPECT IS BENEFICIAL?

Human beings do cultivate themselves with the goodness as well as the bad impacts in the social culture of the society. The background of the family is the prime factor upon which an individual’s social formation depends. Men significantly addressed to commit violence with the power of patriarchal stereotypes from the ancient past to dominate over women. Women are the rigorous victims of violence which disrupts their dignity, modesty and character. It is well noted that men do dishonor women with such minimal  cause or even of no cause when it threatens the family’s honour and fame. They are forced to marry out of their free consent, coerced, sexual assault and denied from the purview of education. The mere prejudice of the society revolves around the discrimination on grounds of class, caste, race, colour and religion from which the girl belongs. The patriarch’s are only bothered to criticize and humiliate which tends to be
“antagonistic, immoralistic and vague” in nature. Social norms, values, roles should be effectively interpreted to prevent the violence among the individuals and actual state of mental well being should also be focused on. Inadequacy of social culture and lacking in logical thinking prevails which should be only regained with help of “education”. Literacy is the sole purpose that every individual should adopt as a fundamental approach to withstand social well being. Education should be inculcated to both men and women to socialize themselves and men do also understand the harmful aspects of violence which should be stopped. For example, in this 21st century the culture of having relationships before marriage, night party at club, intoxication, wearing fashionable dresses are all common in this era whereas, in 16th century there is no liberty for girls to move out of the house anytime, punishable offence if having relationship before marriage; the mentality of humans has been socialized decades after decades.  Socio – economic factors also infuses brutality of weaker socio – economic class. Social dynamics have created a deep impact on victimization of violence. Inclusive increases of violence have propounded the cultural changes. Changes of the society will efficaciously follow to bring a new cultural change which will improvise and reimburse the individuals. Advancing the pre-context of exploitation with systemic factors to maintain the problem. Significantly, for the socio-development culture and understanding the essential attributes of a well guided environment is much needed for prevention of offences.

 

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

There are several solutions and recommendations to eradicate honour killing violence:-

         National Strategic Plan by UN to address the issues of gender based violence against women also widening the border of legal framework.

         UN commissioned to resolve the honour killing by paralegal systems and mediation process.

         Assisting UNHRC for legal recognition of honour based crimes, creating laws and updating the old ones, providing legal assistance for victims of crimes, funding the NGOs to acquire resources and collaborating with local community councils to prevent honour crimes at a faster rate.

         Focusing to understand the root causes of the sexual violence and developing certain resolutions, laws and campaigns to be marked.

         Educating the public individuals to be aware through various NGOs with help of social media outreach, visual presentation of reducing violence, various documentary films to be displayed to enhance in better understanding, valedictory speeches from eminent lawyers expert in field of gender based violence on women, human rights approach to know every individual’s rights, incorporating  studies based on gender based violence and discrimination against women.

         Abolishing corporal punishment in schools which intimates the control of violence and teach them to promote kindness, self- respect and self- discipline.

         Enhancing the accessibility of services for women victimization of violence by which they could get instant support in which grievous position they may be; an telephonic no. should be issued that will have 24X7 assistance for help and a control room to be set up in certain circumstances.

         Literacy campaigns should be more purposefully encouraged by the Government through which they could get an opportunity to give flair to their skills, abilities, logical and analytical skills they would possess.

          Ensuring “free legal aid” to the victims by which they can assure genuine  judgement which will make their life be reshaped in the flow of life.

         Establishing Fast Track court to specialize on the matters of honour based violence and speedy judgement on the cases registered with no pendency of cases.

         Promoting women’s empowerment with vocational training and encouraging them to join associations by which they could earn a sustainable financial living fulfilling their basic amenities in life.

         Drawing attention to the laws and legislation which needs further amendment and rectification according to social interest of the public which will lead to betterment of the amended laws and legislation.

         Recommending the citizens to be aware of the Honour killing cases and report it in the best possible way available either by police force, administrative force, etc.

         Express the concern for adopting solutions to solve honour killings with help from government and drafting a report on number of victims of honour killing, on what basis they have suffered, on what grounds they have been tortured, the persons associated with the crime and mental condition of the victim.

         Serving a sense of humanity to victims to be given financial, medical, clothing and housing facilities by the government; humanitarian assistance to look after the victims should also be given to ensure a peaceful living without any harm.

         Condemns all inequality against victims by tightening the grip of gender equality, making basic protection rules to men and women and establishing government level talks to discuss various policies associated with it.

         Deep concern for LGBTQ community of helping those are  affected by the crimes, negotiating with NGOs to provide adequate support and educate them to fight back against the accused who committed the sort of violence.

         Special Managing Team to be organized by Government to inquire at grassroots levels the working on various reports, resolutions and policies; also an 120 days report to be submitted to the managing team for the progress of work initiated by various NGOs and other cumulative organizations associated with it.

         Noting with concern that women on whom suspicion has fallen are not allowed to defend themselves, and family members have no socially acceptable alternative but to remove their stain by attacking the women.

         Unreported cases of violence should come in the purview of media coverage and further investigation should be followed as to why the case has not been reported.

CRITICAL INTERPRETATION

The evaluations of thinking processes have seen tremendous societal pressure in the hands of society with committing crimes and also controlling by certain norms. Societal changes have been upgraded with effects of behaviour, culture, tradition, status and role of the people. The lofty innovation rate of technology driven Artificial Intelligence (AI) has inductively edged with electric vehicles, bottle light bulbs and solar hearing aids to downward snagging of cyber bullying , sexual cyber threats and cyber stalking. These all are the effects of modernization and globalization which is struggling to sustain the social standards of living. In this modern society it is more viable to do malicious practices to live in with no social values. Less dependence on what the society thinks about; it thus transformed to do whatever and whatsoever with hampering laws, values and injustice to the society. More complexial structural changes have occurred to curb the inflexibility of the society. Religion is also tarnished in the wheel of honour killing as there is no freedom to women to worship their own religion; whereas,  they are forced to convert their religion otherwise they will be engulfed in the cage of “aggravation”. There is barely no security for women’s life – enduring public assault when they are outside of the house  and when they are indoors they are abused either by husbands or the family members. Law and justice tries to innumerate the social responsibility as crime should be judged properly before accusing a person on which circumstances, on what state of mind or consequences that have led the person to commit the crime. Efforts should be made to procure mental well being and satisfaction. Women do become sufficient prey to the hands of men  as they are weak, nimble and silently endures the torture with their eyes. Even nowadays, when a girl child is born in a family there is no urge of happiness rather distress, cruelty which leads to killing of new born child - the mindset need to be cultivated with socio -psychological development of social changes; hence, accepting girl child as showers of blessing which will bring fame, honour and  respect. The influence of the government to ensure wide angle opportunities to enshrine, enrich and build up their skills to excel in different fields of work. It is critically interpreted that women should take the first glaring step towards the process of empowerment, power to subjugate their own rights and create a sense that girls do have the potentiality to shine with vibrant colours in the society.

 

CONCLUSION

Honour killing is a traditional, custom based crime which essentially humiliates the dignity of women and snatches away all the basic rights without which an individual is in a deadly-living situation. Violence against women comes into view when the family’s honour is at stake which vehemently lowers the status in the whole society. Extremely compact essence of education has created the traditional patriarchal society as fish out of water. Discrimination plays the pivotal role in cultural aspect of honour based crimes which ravelled the main focus of violence occurring since ancient times.  Civilization through decades has witnessed the very aspect of a diverse range of acculturation coping with other customs. Women at times raise their voice against tyranny of men when their respect and social orientation has slipped to touch the bottom line. Justice at times fails to prove its truthfulness over various female violence and leads in a pessimistic arc of life. The focus on mental hygiene should be structured and formalized to endeavour the rebirth of a healthier mindset. There is no such proximity of law by which women would be rejected, humiliated and even tortured for the betterment of superior class. Case laws and reports should be thoroughly analysed and suggest a strategy to be implemented on. Synthesizing the aspects of cooperating, coordination, kindfulness and truthfulness would help in reviving the society to curb the social evil of honour killing. The girl’s life changes with different stigmas of social life as fading away the young colours in parental homage to living in husband’s household it shades with greyness having no opportunity to showcase the skills and interest – it is thus ripped off from a woman's life without any reasonable fault.

It is however analyzed that honour based crime, domestic violence, harassment at workplace  against women should all come under the ambit of single umbrella “inhuman brutish” which should be treated as an serious issue to enunciate single law with proper implementation and enquiry to implement law. The concept of Khap Panchayats should be declared illegal and void as it doesn’t bring welfare and peace to the society rather than misconceptions, prejudice and sense of fear. The fortunate behaviour of women with glaringness should step forward to understand the disastrous side effects of violence. Women should be unlocked from the cage of violent activities and let them grow in the bloom of open society and there shall be no violence, no injustice, no harassment and no restrictions which shall not bound themselves as the darkness of night. The beauty and mesmerizing effect of women’s power in the profession of lawyers, attorneys, medical practitioners, and professors enshrined their excellence in the “anvils of peace” with their shining qualities to be showered upon.



[1] Aditi Prabhune ,  ‘A Socio- Legal Study on  Honour  Killing As A Crime in India’ , ‘ 2002’

 

[2] Articles relating to Fundamental Rights of Indian Constitution applies to all citizens with the territory of India.

[3] Section 302  of Indian Penal Code defines  “ that whoever commits murder shall be punished with death or imprisonment of life and shall also liable to fine”. 

 

[4]Riley Behlke’ , ‘Borgen Magazine’ , ‘A Closer at Honour Kiliings in India’ , ‘ February 24, 2021’

[5] ‘Thoraya Ahmed  Obaid’ ‘United Nations Agencies Forward Together in Response to Violence Against Women’

[6] ‘Violence against women estimates, 2018 : global, regional and estimates for partner violence against women’ ‘Executive summary Geneva: World Health Organisation ; 2021 License : CC BY- NC- SA 3.0 IGO’

[7] ‘Amnesty International UK ‘ ‘Women’s human rights | Violence against women’ ‘18 May 2020, 5:54pm’

[8] ‘Nigel Chidombwe’ ‘Violence Against Women and International Law: A Robust Approach is Needed’ ‘October 7, 2020’

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